Differences between CAT and CBT

Firstly, CAT stands for cognitive analytic therapy and CBT stands for cognitive behavioural therapy.

Woman Struggling with Emotions

What is CAT?

  • Enables you to think about yourself differently.
  • Helps to find out what your problems and difficulties in life are. Along with how they started and how they affect you etc.
  • Recognises the importance of relationships in your life, as well as the relationship you have with yourself.

What does CAT involve?

CAT can be carried out with individuals or in groups over a period of between 16 and 24 sessions. The session time can vary depending on the counsellor that you visit, however, the average time for a cognitive analytic therapy session is around 1 hour approx.

The first few sessions out of the 16/24 will consist of the ‘reformulation phase’. This is where you are the client will have the opportunity to speak openly about anything that has historically happened in your life or any areas which you believe ‘have gone wrong’. From this, your therapist will map your feelings out on a piece of paper to help you understand the patterns in your behaviour. You will begin to recognise the patterns due to the continued therapy and your therapist will suggest ways in which you can monitor this.

What is CBT?

Cognitive behavioural therapy helps talks about the following:

  • How you think about yourself.
  • How you think about your surroundings and the world as a whole.
  • How you think about other people.
  • How your actions affect others around you.

What does CBT involve?

Similar to CAT, you can do CBT either as an individual or as a group. You will meet with your chosen therapist either weekly or fortnightly and carried out between 5 and 20, 1-hour sessions. You will decide with the therapist what you want to focus on, and they will begin to ask you questions about your life currently, as well as your past experiences. You will create ‘homework’ for yourself to see how you can use the therapy in between your sessions to work on yourself and your thoughts/ behaviour.

Cold & Hot Rolled Steel

hot rolled imageSteel is widely used around the world in the construction of buildings, roads and infrastructure. The majority of new structures are supported by a steel frame. There are many benefits of using a steel frame, the main one being the strength and durability compared to those with a wooden frame. Steel frames are also fire resistant, insect resistant and moisture resistant therefore cannot rot or be subject of damp. Steel framework can also be altered and adjusted to any specific size the consumer may want therefore, specific designs and customisation can be achieved in one process.

Two types of steel are generally used for the production of steel frames. These are hot rolled steel and cold rolled steel.

Cold Rolled Steel

Cold Rolled Steel is more suited to prefabricated buildings, where buildings are more shallow whereas Hot Rolled Steel is more suited to taller buildings as steel sections tend to be thicker.

Hot rolled steel processing is steel sheet metal that is then roll-pressed at very high temperatures of over 1700 °F, this is then run through a series of rollers at high speed and high heat to achieve the finished dimensions.  Hot rolled steel is then spun into coils and left to cool, cold rolled steel goes through another process which includes turning grinding and polishing.

Hot rolled steel has a more scaled surface with slightly rounded edges due to less precise finishing. Cold rolled steel is more lightweight and has a finished smooth surface with closer tolerances, this is the most expensive of the two as cold rolled steel goes through more processing compared to hot rolled. Once this process is complete the Steel products are ready to be distributed to its consumer and can be used for any structural build needed.

What is Metal Fabrication?

Metal Fabrication is the creation of metal shapes, by cutting bending and assembling. It is done via machining various raw materials, but both human labour and automation are involved in the manufacturing process.

The raw materials used in fabrication are plate metal, formed and expanded metal, tube stock, welding wire/rod and casting.

The processes involved are:

  • Cutting – done by sawing, shearing, chiselling, torching or CNC cutting
  • Bending -completed by hammering via press brakes and tube benders
  • Assembling – the joining of pieces to create shapes is finalised by welding, binding with adhesives riveting or further bending

These are then cut in a variety of ways, but the most common method is shearing. Specialised band saws cut off saws to cut metal can be used to do this. There is also the option of using cutting torches which cut a large section of steel with ease.

Metal Fabrication Birmingham

Many businesses that do metal fabrication Birmingham, and it also overlaps with other metalworking specialities including Blacksmithing, Boilermakers, Millwrights and Ironworkers.

Welding is the main focus of steel fabrication. Machined parts are assembled and tack-welded in place, then rechecked for accuracy. A welder then finishes the work according to engineering drawings or by their own experience and judgement if less complicated.

Metal Fabrication Birmingham

An Introduction to Trademark Searches

Beginners Guide to Conducting a Trademark Search

If you are the owner of a registered trademark many people think they can sit back and relax and that their work is complete. However, this is not the case. Your business must conduct a regular trademark search to ensure the safety and security of their intellectual property. These reasons will become evident in the following article as we try to simplify the importance of a comprehensive trademark search for all business no matter how big or small.

The intricacies of a trademark can get overlooked by many companies as the importance of trademark maintenance is not fully understood. A complete understanding of the in and outs of a trademark and gaining knowledge behind conducting regular trademark searches can only look to improve your brand, its exclusivity and its security to give your company longevity within your target market.

Trademark Searches


An Introduction to Trademark Searches

The common misconception about a trademark is that once it has been set up and registered it can be left, the job is done. But this is not the case maintenance of trademarks and conducting a trademark search is far broader than many people realise. Therefore, first, we must understand what a trademark search is and how they can be administered correctly.

Searching for a trademark is far more than just an online search, they are not restricted to just a search of a keyword or phrase, the search can also be conducted on a trademark number, image or owner. This search doesn’t only crawl external databases for the presence of a registered trademark but also will return the result of unregistered brands. A trademark search consists of much more detail where a search can be filtered by territory not only local but on an international scale to display the trademarks that are being used corresponding with your search terms.

Why Conduct Regular Searches of Your Trademark

Failure to keep up with regular trademark maintenance as discussed can have a detrimental effect on your business and your brand. If trademark searches are neglected at crucial stages, this could prove disastrous for your trademark. Intermittent trademark searches after the initial preliminary search should be conducted regularly to highlight any possible infringements to your trademark. These searches outline significantly similar marks that are being used and can affect the exclusivity of your brand allowing you to file for potential trademark infringement. If at these key stages a trademark search has failed to be conducted it may result in an inability for you to protect your registered trademark and diminish.


TUPE stands for “Transfer of undertakings (protection of employment) regulations 1981” it has recently been updated so now stands for “Transfer of undertakings (protection of employment) regulations 2006” the law has been amended in 2014 and again in 2018, with various provisions within the 2006 regulations have altered.

The TUPE regulations are in place to preserve employee’s terms and conditions when a business or undertaking is transferred to a new employer.

The regulations have been put in place to protect the employer from being dismissed and to ensure that the employee’s terms and conditions are followed.

It is in your best interests not to opt-out of TUPE, if you do your employment is treated as immediately terminated and you would lose the right to claim for unfair dismissal.

For the employee TUPE is an entitlement and is not an obligation, this could have a negative effect though and your existing employer could decide they do not have enough work for you and you could be made redundant.

The purpose of TUPE is basically to protect employees when a new business takes over from an old one. Its effect is to move any employees from the old employer to the new employer by operation of law.

Your new employer is not allowed to reduce your salary or change other terms of the workforce just to bring them in line with lower wages being paid to its existing workforce, this would most definitely be a breach of TUPE.

If you refuse to be part of the TUPE process your rights will become very limited, you may be able to negotiate a new contract and a new role with the new employer. An employee can object to a TUPE transfer, you do not have to give a reason but if this is done the employment will be treated as the employment is coming to an end on the date of the transfer.

Some various helplines and websites offer free information on TUPE and its procedures.

What You should Know While Installing Parking Barriers

Parking barriers are of great necessity as far as safety is concerned. Fortunately, the technological world has changed a lot. As a result, there is the rise of the use of automated parking barriers. There is a variety of automatic barriers. However, while choosing or installing a parking barrier, there are many factors to consider. The article illustrates and lays out the necessary details you need to know.

manual car park barriers

A good parking barrier should be furnished in both the right-hand and left-hand versions. All the versions should have self-locking gears to lock the arm in open as well as closed positions. If at all a power failure comes up, the arm can be either raised or lowered manually. The manual raising and lowering should be done without even opening the cabinet. Besides, an automatic should have an electronic control panel. It will play a role in allowing the adjustment of speed with the help of the adjustment system. Additionally, it should have a detection device system so as to offer immediate reversal as well as stop movement. They should also give a possibility of installing useful features like keypads, photocells, safety flashers, and key switches on the barrier’s cabinet. While choosing one, make sure that they accept inputs that are from all access control systems, for instance, radio transmitters and photocells.

Besides, there are various characteristics that good parking barriers should stand to have. Firstly, it should have a simple automation solution that can be adopted quickly. Also, parking barriers should be economical in the sense that they should not consume lots of power. While installing one, it is prudent to a barrier that has low voltage potential. At the time of establishing a parking barrier, be it manual or automatic; choose a location that is suitable. By that, make sure that it is free from obstructions in all positions, that is, the raised as well as the lowered positions.